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>Introduction>纳米技术词汇表A至C

NANOTECHNOLOGY GLOSSARY A through C

Last Updated: Monday,20-Apr-2015 19:51:36 PDT

This纳米技术词汇表is a work-in-progress,and will be updatedvery frequently,所以回头看看。拜托电子邮件us with any missing terms,and we will include them.任何可归因于作者的定义,unless we get a quote sent to us without one.如果你看到一个作者没有出现,你知道是谁,请通知我们,我们会进行更新。Thanks![brackets] indicate author and copyright holder

B|C|D—F|G - I|J-M|N|O-R|S - U|V-Z



ACE Paste:假球形CarbonExtractor.把温室气体收成碳,to be used for diamondoid fabrication.Larger than most pastebots,because it has to be collectible afterwards.A well-designed paste could harvest 100X or more its empty weight.可能不需要ace粘贴,因为大型固定安装可能更有效。[UHF ]

腺嘌呤三磷酸:一种化学化合物,用作生物分子纳米技术的燃料,具有以下公式:CH16N5o13P.[纳米技术百科全书]

阿尼玛:这个术语是由Alan H开发的。戈德斯坦。In his article I,纳米机器人,他建议以“动物材料”“动物”一词的缩写来命名一种新的生活状态。This artificial life form (most likely nanobiotechnology based) must meet the following tests:

A = Devices that can survive and function in our ecosphere,for example inside human beings.

B = Devices that can derive energy from biological metabolism.Many nanomedical devices will be powered by the fuel available inside the human body.A common idea is to take our own glucose-oxidizing enzymes and use them as a fuel cell for the nanobiobot.

C = Devices capable of copying themselves by molecular self-assembly.请注意,任何必要的信息,为动物的行动,不能存储在DNA或RNA或任何其他方法被发现是自然使用地球上的生命。The corollary: If the information necessary to execute the animat's operations can be stored in DNA or RNA,then the animat is really biological and is not an animat.

So A + B + C = a self-replicating device capable of living in our ecosphere,由我们生态圈中可用的燃料提供动力=动物。

Assembler: A general-purpose device for molecular manufacturing capable of guiding chemical reactions by positioning molecules.一种分子机器,可编程成用简单的化学积木建造几乎任何分子结构或装置。Analogous to a computer-driven machine shop.[FS]

原子层沉积(AFM) A self-limiting,sequential surface chemistry that deposits conformal thin-films of materials onto substrates of varying compositions.ALD在化学上与化学气相沉积(CVD)相似。除了ALD反应将CVD反应分解成两个半反应外,keeping the precursor materials separate during the reaction.ALD膜的生长是自限的,基于表面反应。这使得实现原子尺度沉积控制成为可能。By keeping the precursors separate throughout the coating process,atomic layer control of film grown can be obtained as fine as ~ 0.1 angstroms per monolayer.

Atomic Force Microscope(AFM)一种能够通过机械探测表面轮廓来对表面进行分子精度成像的仪器。一种近端探针。....A device in which the deflection of a sharp stylus mounted on a soft spring is monitored as the stylus is moved across a surface.如果通过测量增量上下移动表面来保持偏转恒定,the result (under favorable conditions) is an atomic-resolution topographic map of the surface.Also termed a scanning force microscope.[FS] SeeHow AFM Works,什么是原子力显微镜?andWindow on a Small World

Atomic Manipulation:操纵原子,typically with the tip of an STM.

原子同步:大分子系统的原子运动计算机模拟日益成为材料科学和纳米技术的重要组成部分。Recent advances in supercomputer simulation techniques provide the necessary tools for performing computations on nanoscale objects containing as many as 300,000 atoms and on materials simulated with 1,000,000 atoms.This new capability will allow computer simulation of mechanical devices or molecular machines using nanometer size components.[Ornl计算科学中心]

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弹道磁阻:(bmr)是另一种旋转方向,对存储介质(如硬盘)上的信息进行编码,can modify electrical resistance in a nearby circuit,thereby accomplishing the sensing of that orientation.[物理新闻]

生物组件或生物分子组件: containing several protein units,DNA环,lipids,various ligands,等。

生物性的:来源于“生物食动物”;一种能够将生物材料转化为能量以维持生计的生物。[ZY]

Biochauvinism: The prejudice that biological systems have an intrinsic superiority that will always give them a monopoly on self-reproduction and intelligence.[FS]

Biomedical Nanotechnology: see纳米医学.

生医微机电--MEMSused in medicine,使用微芯片。

BioNEMS-- biofunctionalized nanoelectromechanical systems.

Biomimetic:模仿,复制,or learning from nature.纳米技术在自然界已经存在;thus,nanoscientists have a wide variety of components and tricks already available.[纳米技术百科全书]

仿生学: study of the structure and function of biological substances to make artificial products that mimic the natural ones.[BNL]

仿生化学:生物化学知识,分析化学,高分子科学,and biomimetic chemistry is linked and applied to research in designing new molecules,molecular assemblies,以及具有仿生功能的大分子。These new bio-related materials of high performance,包括:例如,酶模型,synthetic cell membranes,and biodegradable polymers,are prepared,已测试,不断完善这一部门的工业规模生产。[DCBE]

仿生材料: Materials that imitate,copy,or learn from nature.

生物聚合物光电系统: combining optics and microelectromechanical systems,and used in biological applications.

生物酶: A condition in which an organism's cell and tissue structure are preserved,allowing later restoration by cell repair machines.Applicable to cryonics.[fs]另见“缺血性昏迷”、“氨甲代谢性昏迷”、“生物静态昏迷”和“悬浮状态”。

Blue Goo- opposite of灰色粘液.有益的技术,或者“警察”纳米机器人。

Bogosity Filter: A mechanism for detecting bogus ideas and propositions.

Born-Oppenheimer Approximation: permits the use of classical mechanics in modeling and thinking about molecular and atomic motions.Needless to say,this greatly simplifies the conceptual framework required for thinking about molecular machines.[RCM]曾被用来讨论为什么MNT不能工作。Since refuted: See那是不可能的!How good scientists reach bad conclusions

Bose-Einstein Condensates [BEC's]“…不像固体,我们在学校学到的液体和气体。They are not vaporous,不难,不流动。的确,因为它们来自另一个世界——量子力学的世界,所以没有普通的词语来描述它们。一种新的物质形式]

自下而上: Building larger objects from smaller building blocks.Nanotechnology seeks to use atoms and molecules as those building blocks.The advantage of bottom-up design is that the covalent bonds holding together a single molecule are far stronger than the weak.[NTN] Mostly done by chemists,attempting to create structure by connecting molecules.

Brownian Assembly: Brownian motion in a fluid brings molecules together in various position and orientations.如果分子有合适的互补表面,they can bind,组装形成一个特定的结构。对于自组装来说,布朗组装是一个不那么矛盾的名称(一个结构如何能够自己组装,或者做任何事,when it does not yet exist?).[NTN]

布朗运动:由于热搅拌,颗粒在流体中的运动,observed in 1827 by Robert Brown.(最初被认为是由生命力引起的,Brownian motion in fact plays a vital role in the assembly and activity of the molecular structures of life).[NTN]

Bulk technology:大量操纵原子和分子的技术,而不是单独的。[FS]

BuckminsterfullereneFullerenes.A broad term covering the variety of buckyballs and carbon nanotubes that exist.以建筑师巴克明斯特·富勒的名字命名,他以测地穹顶闻名,就像七叶树。[CMP]

巴基球[又名:C60分子和巴克敏斯特富勒烯]——由60个碳原子组成的分子,排列成一系列相互连锁的六角形。forming a structure similar to a soccer ball.See our纳米管和七叶树页面。

灌木机器人: A concept for robots of ultimate dexterity,它们利用分形分支创造出不断缩小的“分支”,最终以纳米级的“手指”结束,由HansMoravec开发。SeeFractal branching ultra-dexterous robots

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碳纳米管:参见纳米管

Cellular Automata: an array of identically programmed automata,或者“细胞”,它们相互作用。[David G.Green]

Cell pharmacology: Delivery of drugs by medical nanomachines to exact locations in the body.[FS]

电池修理机:带有传感器的分子和纳米级机器,纳米计算机和工具,programmed to detect and repair damage to cells and tissues,如果需要的话,它甚至可以向人类医生报告并接受他们的指导。

Single Cell Repair Unit
cell repair machine


A cell repair unit using cilia for propulsion and equipped with a nanocomputer having 10 megabytes of fast RAM and 1 gigabyte of slower-access memory.该装置正在扩展1000个单独控制的分子操纵器。

多单元维修单元协同工作
cell repair machine

Several cell repair units are shown simultaneously engaged in repairing a single neuronal cell.Communications fibers and cables link the repair units to a master controller system that directs all the repair activities from outside the scene.

点击放大
� Copyright 1988 by the Alcor Life Extension Foundation.
Artist Brian Wowk,"Cell Repair Technology," Cryonics Magazine,1988年7月;Alcor Foundation Reprint,pp.7,10。Thanks also to Robert A.Freitas Jr.,author of纳米医学,以及Foresight Nanomedicine Gallery.

Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD): a technique used to deposit coatings,在化学物质第一次被蒸发的地方,and then applied using an inert carrier gas such as nitrogen.

Cobots: Collaborative robots designed to work alongside human operators.Prototype cobots are being used on automobile assembly lines to help guide heavy components like seats and dashboards into cars so they don't damage auto body parts as workers install them.[有线5.07术语表]

Cognotechnology:纳米技术的融合,biotech and IT,用于遥感和大脑控制。[Nanodot]

Computational Nanotechnology:允许对复杂的纳米级结构进行建模和模拟。The predictive and analytical power of computation is critical to success in nanotechnology: nature required several hundred million years to evolve a functional "wet" nanotechnology;计算所提供的洞察力应使我们能够将“干”纳米技术的开发时间缩短到几十年,它也会对“湿”面产生重大影响。[Rice University]

Computronium公司: A highly (or optimally) efficient matrix for computation,such as dense lattices of nanocomputers or quantum dot cellular automata.[Eugene Leitl]

Contelligence:(意识+智能)人工智能网络所需的意识和计算能力的结合,without loss of anything essential,把我们自己上传到他们里面。[蒂莫西·利里][作为]

Convergent Assembly:“…快速制造尺寸以米为单位的产品,从尺寸以纳米为单位的积木开始。这是基于小零件可以组装成大零件的想法,larger parts can be assembled into still larger parts,and so forth.This process can be systematically repeated in a hierarchical fashion,creating an architecture able to span the size range from the molecular to the macroscopic." [Ralph C.梅克尔]



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相关术语:

FUTURE SHOCK“那些不注意的人感到震惊。”阿尔文·托夫勒,1970

费米悖论:“如果宇宙中还有其他智慧生物,他们为什么不在这儿?”因为一个技术物种在不到1000万年的时间内就很可能在银河系中传播(使用von Neumann machines) or otherwise change things on such a large scale that it would be very visible (seeKardaschev类型),the lack of such evidence is puzzling or implies that other technological civilizations doen't exist.There have been many attempts to explain this,for example the "Wildlife Preserve" idea (the aliens doesn't want to interfere with younger civilizations),that they transcend and become incomprehensible,他们藏起来了或者他们真的在这里,隐藏在纳米尺度上,but the problem with these attempts is that most of them just explain why some aliens would not be apparent.e.费米

反乌托邦: often used to describe a society where people lead dehumanized,害怕,技术限制了生命。换句话说,a totalitarianism or theocracy,where books are burned,reading of dangerous ideas is proscribed,and the state controls science.

MEME:以类似于基因的方式传播的自我复制思想或其他信息模式。[理查德·道金斯,1976]

正热带: A cognition-enhancing drug that has no significant side-effects.[C.吉乌尔盖]


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原作者缩写的关键

Blank - our definition
AS -安德斯·桑德伯格
Bostrom -Dr.Nick Bostrom
BNL布鲁克海文国家功能纳米材料实验室中心
CA-B - Christopher Anderson-Beatty
CPChris Phoenix
CMP -CMP Cient�fica
化学与生化工程系Toyama University
FR -Fractal Robots
FS-Foresight Institute
KED -K.Eric Drexler
LBL -劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室
MT -今天的材料
NTN -NanoApex [formerly NanotechNews]
RCM -Ralph C.梅克尔
纳米技术百科全书-史蒂夫·莱赫特
WID-Widener University
ZY -Zyvex
(p) - paraphrased.有时为了上下文的目的是必要的。
[编辑]-编辑
[uhf] - used here first.换句话说,我们创造了它。
....-一段已经被压缩,和部分(仍在尝试维护上下文时)被遗漏。



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其他未来科学,纳米技术和纳米科学词汇网站

美国材料试验学会

Foresight

IoN

Zyvex

Nanotechnology Part One: TaxonomyCodesta

Nanomedicine Book Glossary小R A Freitas。

JPK InstrumentsNanoBiotechnology Glossary (click NanoResources/Glossary)

Nanoword史蒂夫·莱赫特

外视新词Max More

Transhuman Terminology安德斯·桑德伯格

Accelerating Future Lexicon迈克尔·安尼西莫夫

Terminology From The Omega Point Theory List

Orion's Arm GlossaryM.Alan Kazlev,et al

Russian Society of Scanning Probe Microscopy and Nanotechnology.

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