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Home>>两个比一个好:科学家们在一个纳米蛋白酶上适合两种催化剂,以更好地净水

科学家团队与Eli Stavitski(左)和永华杜(右)一起工作,以“见”在国家同步光源II(NSLS-ii)。Brookhaven国家实验室
科学家团队与Eli Stavitski(左)和永华杜(右)一起工作,以“见”在国家同步光源II(NSLS-ii)。Brookhaven国家实验室

Abstract:
A collaboration of scientists from the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)--a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science user facility at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory--Yale University, and Arizona State University has designed and tested a new two-dimensional (2-D) catalyst that can be used to improve water purification using hydrogen peroxide. While water treatment with hydrogen peroxide is environmentally friendly, the two-part chemical process that drives it is not very efficient. So far, scientists have struggled to improve the efficiency of the process through catalysis because each part of the reaction needs its own catalyst--called a co-catalyst--and the co-catalysts can't be next to each other.

Two is better than one: Scientists fit two co-catalysts on one nanosheet for better water purification

Upton,NY |在2020年4月16日发布

“那我们的总体目标是开发一种材料t increases the efficiency of the process so that no additional chemical treatment of the water would be necessary. This would be particularly useful for systems that are off-the-grid and far away from urban centers," said Jaehong Kim, Henry P. Becton Sr. Professor of Engineering and Chair of Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Yale University. Kim is also a member of Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment (NEWT), which partly supported this research.

In their recent paper, published on March 11 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the team presented the design for the new 2-D catalyst and revealed its structure through measurements at NSLS-II. The trick of their new design is that the scientists managed to place two co-catalysts--one for each part of the reaction--onto two different locations on a thin nanosheet.

"Many processes need two reactions in one. This means that you need two co-catalysts. However, the challenge is that the two co-catalysts have to stay separated, otherwise they'll interact with each other and create a negative effect on the efficiency of the whole process," said Eli Stavitski, a chemist and beamline scientist at NSLS-II.

In many cases, catalysts are made from a large number of atoms to form a catalytic nanomaterial, which may seem small to a human but, in the world of chemical reactions, are still fairly large. Therefore, placing two of these materials next to each other without them interacting is quite challenging. To solve this challenge, the team took a different route.

"We used a thin nanosheet to co-host two co-catalysts for the different parts of the reaction. The beauty is in its simplicity: one of the co-catalysts--a single cobalt (Co) atom--sits in the center of the sheet, whereas the other one, a molecule called anthraquinone, is placed around the edges. This would not be possible with catalysts made of nanomaterials- since they would be 'too big' for this purpose," said Kim.

金正日和他的团队在耶鲁大学合成这东北w 2-D catalyst in their lab following a precise series of chemical reactions, heating, and separating steps.

在科学家合成新的双对催化剂之后,它们需要弄清楚助催化剂在实际反应期间保持分离,并且这种新的2-D催化剂的表现如何。然而,为了真正“看到”他们双向催化剂的原子结构和化学性质,科学家需要两种不同种类的X射线:硬X射线和柔软的X射线。就像可见光一样,X射线具有不同的颜色 - 或波长 - 而不是调用蓝色或红色,它们被称为硬,温柔或软。vwin徳赢官网

“人眼看不到紫外线或红外光,我们需要特殊的相机来看看它们。我们的仪器无法同时”看到“辛苦和温柔的X射线。所以,我们需要两个不同的乐器 - 或横梁- 使用不同的X射线调查催化剂的材料,“Stavitski说。

The scientists started their investigation at NSLS-II's hard x-ray Inner Shell Spectroscopy (ISS) beamline using a technique called x-ray absorption spectroscopy. This technique helped the team to learn more about the local structure of the new 2-D catalyst. Specifically, they found out how many neighboring atoms each co-catalyst has, how far away these neighbors are, and how they are connected to each other.

调查中的下一站是NSLS-II的柔软能量X射线吸收光谱(TES)光束线。

“通过使用柔软的X射线而不是硬X射线在TES中使用相同的技术,我们可以清楚地看到轻质元件。传统上,许多催化剂由我们可以研究的重量元素如钴,镍或铂制成然而,使用硬X射线,我们的2-D催化剂还包括重要的较轻元件,如磷。因此,我们还需要更多关于这款较轻元件在我们的双向催化剂中的作用,我们还需要温柔的X射线,“雍果杜,物理学家和TES束缚线科学家说。

NSLS-II的TES梁线是美国少数仪器中的少数仪器之一,可以通过提供温柔的X射线成像和光谱能力来补充不同的硬X射线功能。

After their experiments, the scientists wanted to be sure that they understood how the catalyst worked and decided to simulate different candidate structures and their properties.

“我们使用称为密度泛函理论的方法来了解控制反应效率的结构和机制。基于我们通过实验学到的内容以及我们所知道的原子如何互相互动,我们模拟了几个候选结构确定哪一个是最合理的,“亚利桑那州立大学化学工程助理教授克里斯托弗·穆希(Christopher Muhich),也是纽特成员。

只有通过将其在合成,分析实验和理论模拟中的专业知识结合起来,团队才能创建新的2-D催化剂并证明其效率。该团队同意合作是他们成功的关键,并继续寻找各种环境应用的下一代催化剂。

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Contacts:
Cara Laasch

631-344-8458

@brookhavenlab

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